Electric Plugin Vehicles


Electric Plugin Vehicles

Electric plugin vehicles are the way of the future. Bio fuels and hybrid vehicles are just an interim solution for personal passenger transportation. The good news, they're here already.

EV Battery Reuse: Battery systems in electric vehicles are expected to outlast the vehicles themselves. Thus at the end of the car’s life, the battery system should still retain 70% of it’s storage capacity. These used battery systems would not be strong enough to power another new vehicle but could they be used for home power systems? Read more on battery reuse.

Cold Weather & Batteries: Yes, temperature does impact the range you get from an electric vehicle. The good news is that the EV makers are addressing the problem. Nissan introduced a standard cold-weather package for the 2012 Leaf that aims to reduce use of the climate control system with heated seats, a duct to direct warmth to the back seat, temperature management for the battery, and heated steering wheel and mirrors. Volt and Leaf owners can help their range by pre-warming the battery and the cabin while the car is plugged in . Here are some real-life numbers from a Nissan Leaf owner: mynissanleaf

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Tesla Motors - Model S


Electric Vehicles for the Rich & Famous - Pat 2.... the Tesla Model S is a step in the right direction. Still priced beyond the average consumer at $49,900 after rebates, for the 160 mile battery version. It's initial production run comes with a 300 mile battery, for a $20,000 increase in base price.

Production is expected to be around 5000 units in 2012 and 20,000 units in 2013, with a left hand drive version for Europe in 2013..Tesla Model S


Range : 300, 230 & 160 Miles before recharge (3 options with increases in price)

Mileage : 256mpg equivalent - 2 cents per mile

Seating : 5 adults plus 2 kids

Cost : $69,900, $59,900 and $49,900 after $7,500 US rebates - more in not in the US

More Information: Tesla Motors

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Volvo V60 2012 Plug-in, Hybrid, Diesel

Three cars in one! The 2012 Volvo V60  will travel up to 30 miles in Electric-Only mode, and can be switched to Hybrid and Diesel at the push of a button.

Features:Volvo V60 2012 Plugin Hybrid Diesel

  • 2.4 litre Diesel – front wheel drive
  • 52 kW Electric – rear wheel drive
  • 6 speed automatic transmission
  • 30 miles on electric only, 62 mph max in electric mode
  • 124 mpg combined, 745 miles per tank
  • 4 hour battery recharge
  • 0-62 mph in under 7 seconds
  • 2 ton towing capacity
  • cold-weather ready

More info at All Cars Electric


Li-ion Motors Wave II

Edison2 X-Prize Winner

Winner of the 2010 X-Prize for a 2 passenger, side-by-side,  obtaining over 100 MPG! Prize value = $2.5 Million.

The WAVE II, affordable all-electric, transportation for the next generation. The WAVE II will recharge in eight hours or less depending upon current used and has a range of up to 170 miles per charge.

This vehicle has all the creature comforts we have grown used to such as heating, air conditioning, power windows, GPS etc. and can still transport a week’s worth of groceries and more in the rear of the vehicle. The Wave II was designed with practical everyday use in mind.

Weight = 987 kg
Range = 161 km
Fuel Efficiency = 187 MGPe


E-tracer – by Team X-tracer

E-tracer X-Prize Winner

Winner of the 2010 X-Prize for a 2 passenger in-line,  obtaining over 100 MPG! Prize value = $2.5 Million.

This innovative tandem two seat vehicle uses an all-American power train composed of a 150 kW electric drive system made by AC Propulsion and a 19.4 kWh lithium polymer battery system from NeuEnergy in San Diego. The Kelvar/carbon fiber monocoque chassis makes this roomy vehicle with such a low weight possible. This clever design has two extra wheels that deploy at low speed to stabilize the vehicle.

Weight = 651 kg
Range = 161 km
Fuel Efficiency = 197 MPGe
Drive type: Battery electric, rear-wheel-drive
Power source: 20 kwh lithium-ion batteries, 150kW electric drive system
Website: X-tracer Blog


Nissan Leaf & Land GliderNissan Leaf


Nissan introduced their 5 seater sedan, called LEAF EV which became available in select markets in 2010 and full worldwide production in 2012. This vehicle will go 160 kms (100 miles) between charges, to cover the vast majority of trips.

At the same time, Nissan has introduce a 2 seater, commuter EV called the Land Glider. This vehicle will "lean" up to 17 degrees as it travels around corners.

Here are some real-life range numbers from a Leaf owner: mynissanleaf

Range = 160 km
Warranty = 8 year/160,000km battery
Drive type: Battery electric, front-wheel-drive
Power source: 80kW electric drive system
Passengers = 5
Website: Nissan Leaf EV


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Renault ZE - Zero Emissions


Renault has announce a "line" of electric-only vehicles for 2011/12. They include a small 2 seater city car (Twizy), a van-like vehicle based on their existing Kangoo model, ZOE is their compact model and FLUENCE, a family sedan. The vehicles will recharge in 6-8 hours with a standard plug, in 20 minutes with a quick charger and will also support battery swapping.

Range : 160 Km before recharge - (100 miles)

Top Speed : 87 mph

Other:Recharge with standard circuit in 6-8 hours. Fast charge in 20 minutes. Battery swap in 5 minutes

Website: Renault UK

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ZENN, standing for Zero Emissions No Noise, has a low speed electric vehicle on the market today. Initial plans were to release a highway version in the Fall (Fall 2009). The highway version, called the CityZENN, would use the new battery technology from EEStor, which will allow the car to recharge in just minutes, after traveling 400 km (250 miles) on a single charge. As of 2012 neither the CityZENN nor the EEStor battery has been seen, though both companies are still around.

Range : 400 Km before recharge - (250 miles)

Top Speed : 125 km/h - (80 mph)

Other: EEStor battery system will recharge in only 5 minutes

Website: ZENN Cars

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Pininfarina Bluecar


The Pininfarina BLUECAR, on show at the Geneva Motor Show on the Véhicules Électriques Pininfarina-Bolloré stand, is not a mere concept car but a forerunner of the vehicle which will go into production in Italy at Pininfarina starting from 2010 with the first units. Production on an industrial scale will take place between 2011 and 2012, with forecast output by 2015 being about 60,000.

Range : 250 Km before recharge - (150 miles)

Top Speed : 130 km/h - (80 mph)

Seating : 4 adults

Other: Super capacitor will take vehicle 30 km on charge of only a few minutes

Website: Pininfarina Bluecar

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Venturi Volage

Previewed at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, the Venturi Volage is the result of a collaboration between Venturi Automobiles and Michelin. It's a 2 seater sports car, powered by Michelin's Active In-wheel Motor system. Top speed is 150 km/hr and range is 320 km traveling at 90 km/hr.And of course it does 0 to 100 km/hr in less than 5 seconds!


Website: Venturi Volage

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Chrysler EV's

Chrysler Electric Vehicles

On September 23rd, 2008, Chrysler announced 3 electric vehicles, one of which they plan to produce for delivery at the end of 2010 (same time as the GM Volt).

One vehicle, the Dodge EV sports car, would be fully electric with a top speed of 120 mph and a range between 150-200 miles. Recharge time is 8 hours at 110 volts or 4 hours at 220v.

The Jeep and Minivan models are both Range Extended Electric Vehicles (REEV) with a small gas motor used to recharge the batteries when the initial charge is drained., similar to the Chevy Volt. These REEV would be able to travel about 40 miles before the gas motor kicks in. No word of which of the 3 is likely to be produced first and as of 2012, none are available.

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Chevy Volt

Chevy Volt EV

First available in the 2011 season as a full production model vehicle. This is another Range Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV).

Top speed around 100 mph. The batteries will take the Volt up to 35 miles before the small gas motor starts to recharge the system. Recharge time is 8 hours at 110v or 3 hours at 220v.

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ZAP-X and more ZAP Alias EV

In February of 2007 ZAP Electric Cars announced a Tesla-like sports car called the ZAP-X, capable of traveling 155 mph with a range in the area of 350 miles. Their combination of lithium-ion batteries and “super capacitor” technology, claims that a recharge can take as little as 10 minutes.

ZAP EV has several vehicles in the offering, based on a 3 wheel, motorcycle model. They have recently announced the Alias model which will use much of the technology proposed for the ZAP-X, but will be available sooner and at a better price. Tops Speed is 100 mph and range is 100+ miles. MSRP is $32,500 and they started taking deposits for a 2009 delivery. This car is still under development in 2012.

As of 2012 the EV models have changed to SUV vehicles - you can see their two versions at their website.

Website: ZAP Electric Vehicles

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Oscar - electric plugin car

Not in production, this car was designed by Felix von Borck of Akasol and a group of students at the Technical University of Darmstadt. VW have reportedly taken an interest in this vehicle... we'll see if that leads to something more.

Update: see next item under VW 1-litre. While their 1-litre vehicle is powered by diesel, not electricity, can the electric model be far behind?

Range : 100 - 300 Km before recharge (60 - 180 miles)

Top Speed : 130 km/h (80 mph)

Seating : 2 tall adults or 1 adult & 2 children. Sit one in front of the other.

Power Consumption : 6 kwh/100 km - equivalent to 1 ltr/100 km or 235 miles per gallon

More information :

1 page folder of the Oscar, with technical data

2 page poster of Oscar, with car and drive train

1 page poster with invitation to partner with the University to build 1,000 Oscars

Oscar Homepage in English - very little translated from German

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Volkswagen One-Litre Diesel

Voltswagen One-litre

True, it's not an electric vehicle, but the mileage is impressive!

Volkswagen have relaunched their one-litre (1 litre of diesel per 100 kilometers = 282 mpg) to be available in 2010.

Like the OSCAR, it holds two people who sit one in front of the other.

The production model will be powered by a small diesel engine and get 282 MPG. Hopefully a VW fully electric vehicle is not far behind.

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Volkswagen L1 One-Litre Diesel- Electric Hybrid

Voltswagen L1

Yes, still following this story of the 1 litre diesel. As of September 2009, it's now an elect ic-diesel hybrid. When it goes into production in 2013, it will be the most aerodynamic car in the world and, at just 840lb, the lightest.

It is built of the most exotic materials, with slippery carbon-fibre coachwork, a fighter aircraft’s cockpit canopy and rear-view television cameras instead of wing mirrors.

Its tiny, 800cc engine is one half of a VW 1.6-litre TDI turbo diesel unit, which delivers maximum power of 29 brake horsepower together with a 14 horse power electric motor to provide extra oomph for overtaking.

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Think City

Think City Electric Plugin Car

On March 12, 2009 TH!NK announced plans to build a US based manufacturing plant. Fleet vehicles ready in 2010, with full production for consumers in 2011. Read the press release: TH!NK in North America

However, as of Spring 2012 this plant sits idle with 100 unfinished cars inside and no work taking place.


The Think City was to cost under $25,000 USD before local rebates but has come in at a much higher price ($42,000). The car had planned to use sodium batteries and would be 95% recyclable. Of primary interest to fleet operations, a battery leasing option was to be offered, reducing the initial price and removing hesitation around new battery technologies. However, the battery manufacturer, Ener1, filed for bankruptcy in February 2012.

Range : 170 Km before recharge - (100 miles)

Top Speed : 105 km/h - (64 mph)

Seating : 2 adults, side by side

More Information: Think Global's Homepage

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Aptera Motors

Aptera Electric Vehicle

To be manufactured in California and available only in California to start, Aptera Motors set the price at US$26 900 for the all-electric Aptera Local, and US$29 900 for the plug-in hybrid Aptera Everywhere.

In December 2011 Aptera finally announced their were shutting their doors, letting its workers go and liquidating its assets.

They started taking orders in 2007, with production scheduled for late 2008 but experienced delay after delay.

Range : 120 miles for all-electric model

Top Speed : 85 mph

Seating : 2 adults plus a child seat - will hold 2 full golf bags or 17 grocery bags

More Information: Aptera Motors Homepage

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Mitsubishi's i MiEV Electric Car

Mitsubishi MiEV Electric Car

Mitsubishi has be working on fully electric vehicles for years. Their MiEV (Mitsubishi innovative Electric Vehicle) was released in Japan in June 2009, a full year earlier than expected and became avaiable in North America in 2011.

SEPT 04,2009 PARIS - PSA Peugeot Citroen and Mitsubishi Motors Corp. have agreed to launch an electric car in Europe by the end of 2010.

This vehicle is based on Mitsubishi's i-MieV, which was launched on the Japanese market in June 2009. The car is built in Japan and the car makers target eventual annual global sales of 50,000 vehicles, PSA Peugeot Citroen spokesman Jean-Marc Sarret said.

The car will be able to drive for 130 kilometers (81 miles) between charges, with a battery that can be fully recharged in six hours, Sarret said.

Range : 81 miles or 130 kms

Top Speed : 81 mph or 130 kph

Cost : $28,000 USD, $32,998 in Canada

More Information: Mitsubishi MiEV

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Tesla Motors - Roadster

Think City Electric Plugin Car

Electric Vehicles for the Rich & Famous.... the Tesla EV is truly a marvel if you can just forget about the price tag. With an acceleration of 0 to 60 in 3.9 seconds, this is an on-street racecar.

Production is in very low volumes with long backlogs in orders. In July 2008, the first units started to ship to customers.

The second model, Model S, starts at $57,400 and is still aimed at the very top of the market.

Range : 220 Miles before recharge - (400 kms)

Mileage : 256mpg equivalent - 2 cents per mile

Seating : 2 adults

Cost : $$$$ - too much for you and me

More Information: Tesla Motors

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Miles Electric Vehicles - XS500

Think City Electric Plugin Car

Miles Electric Vehicles already makes low speed vehicles for fleets and initially planned for a late 2009 delivery for their first highway speed sedan, the XS500.

However, as of 2012 this first model never arrived. Thier website indicates they are still planning to produce this model.

Final assembly is in China, with large scale production planned - true consumer market.

Range : 120 Miles before recharge - (216 kms)

Mileage : 159 mpg equivalent

Top Speed: 80+ mph

Seating : 5 adults

Cost : $35,000-$39,000 estimated

More Information: Miles Electric Vehicles

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Wondering just how much carbon dioxide and other Greenhouse gases is produced when you make 1 kwh of electricity? Check here for a state by state, or province, listing of the pounds of CO2 produced per kwh of electricity generated. Greenhouse Gases to Produce Electricity


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